[Fuente: https://docs.angularjs.org/tutorial ]
A great way to get introduced to AngularJS is to work through this tutorial, which walks you through the construction of an AngularJS web app. The app you will build is a catalog that displays a list of Android devices, lets you filter the list to see only devices that interest you, and then view details for any device.
Follow the tutorial to see how Angular makes browsers smarter — without the use of native extensions or plug-ins:
- See examples of how to use client-side data binding to build dynamic views of data that change immediately in response to user actions.
- See how Angular keeps your views in sync with your data without the need for DOM manipulation.
- Learn a better, easier way to test your web apps, with Karma and Protractor.
- Learn how to use dependency injection and services to make common web tasks, such as getting data into your app, easier.
When you finish the tutorial you will be able to:
- Create a dynamic application that works in all modern browsers.
- Use data binding to wire up your data model to your views.
- Create and run unit tests, with Karma.
- Create and run end to end tests, with Protractor.
- Move application logic out of the template and into Controllers.
- Get data from a server using Angular services.
- Apply animations to your application, using ngAnimate.
- Identify resources for learning more about AngularJS.
The tutorial guides you through the entire process of building a simple application, including writing and running unit and end-to-end tests. Experiments at the end of each step provide suggestions for you to learn more about AngularJS and the application you are building.
You can go through the whole tutorial in a couple of hours or you may want to spend a pleasant day really digging into it. If you’re looking for a shorter introduction to AngularJS, check out the Getting Started document.
The rest of this page explains how you can set up your local machine for development. If you just want to read the tutorial then you can just go straight to the first step: Step 0 – Bootstrapping.
Working with the code
You can follow along with this tutorial and hack on the code in the comfort of your own computer. In this way you can get hands-on practice of really writing AngularJS code and also on using the recommended testing tools.
The tutorial relies on the use of the Git versioning system for source code management. You don’t need to know anything about Git to follow the tutorial other than how to install and run a few git commands.
You can download and install Git from http://git-scm.com/download. Once installed you should have access to the
git command line tool. The main commands that you will need to use are:
git clone ...: clone a remote repository onto your local machine
git checkout ...: check out a particular branch or a tagged version of the code to hack on
Clone the angular-phonecat repository located at GitHub by running the following command:
git clone --depth=14 https://github.com/angular/angular-phonecat.git
This command creates the
angular-phonecat directory in your current directory.
--depth=14option just tells Git to pull down only the last 14 commits. This makes the download much smaller and faster.
Change your current directory to
The tutorial instructions, from now on, assume you are running all commands from the
If you want to run the preconfigured local web-server and the test tools then you will also need Node.js v0.10.27+.
You can download a Node.js installer for your operating system from http://nodejs.org/download/.
Check the version of Node.js that you have installed by running the following command:
In Debian based distributions, there is a name clash with another utility called
node. The suggested solution is to also install the
nodejs-legacy apt package, which renames
apt-get install nodejs-legacy npm nodejs --version npm --version
Once you have Node.js installed on your machine you can download the tool dependencies by running:
This command will download the following tools, into the
- Bower – client-side code package manager
- Http-Server – simple local static web server
- Karma – unit test runner
- Protractor – end to end (E2E) test runner
npm install will also automatically use bower to download the Angular framework into the
The project is preconfigured with a number of npm helper scripts to make it easy to run the common tasks that you will need while developing:
npm start: start a local development web-server
npm test: start the Karma unit test runner
npm run protractor: run the Protractor end to end (E2E) tests
npm run update-webdriver: install the drivers needed by Protractor
Install Helper Tools (optional)
The Bower, Http-Server, Karma and Protractor modules are also executables, which can be installed globally and run directly from a terminal/command prompt. You don’t need to do this to follow the tutorial, but if you decide you do want to run them directly, you can install these modules globally using,
sudo npm install -g ....
For instance to install the Bower command line executable you would do:
sudo npm install -g bower
(Omit the sudo if running on Windows)
Then you can run the bower tool directly, such as:
Running Development Web Server
The angular-phonecat project is configured with a simple static web server for hosting the application during development. Start the web server by running:
This will create a local webserver that is listening to port 8000 on your local machine. You can now browse to the application at:
-ato set the address and
-pto set the port.
Running Unit Tests
The angular-phonecat project is configured to use Karma to run the unit tests for the application. Start Karma by running:
This will start the Karma unit test runner. Karma will read the configuration file at
test/karma.conf.js. This configuration file tells Karma to:
- open up a Chrome browser and connect it to Karma
- execute all the unit tests in this browser
- report the results of these tests in the terminal/command line window
It is good to leave this running all the time, in the background, as it will give you immediate feedback about whether your changes pass the unit tests while you are working on the code.
Running End to End Tests
We use End to End tests to ensure that the application as a whole operates as expected. End to End tests are designed to test the whole client side application, in particular that the views are displaying and behaving correctly. It does this by simulating real user interaction with the real application running in the browser.
The End to End tests are kept in the
The angular-phonecat project is configured to use Protractor to run the End to End tests for the application. Protractor relies upon a set of drivers to allow it to interact with the browser. You can install these drivers by running:
npm run update-webdriver
(You should only need to do this once.)
Since Protractor works by interacting with a running application, we need to start our web server:
Then in a separate terminal/command line window, we can run the Protractor test scripts against the application by running:
npm run protractor
Protractor will read the configuration file at
test/protractor-conf.js. This configuration tells Protractor to:
- open up a Chrome browser and connect it to the application
- execute all the End to End tests in this browser
- report the results of these tests in the terminal/command line window
- close down the browser and exit
It is good to run the end to end tests whenever you make changes to the HTML views or want to check that the application as a whole is executing correctly. It is very common to run End to End tests before pushing a new commit of changes to a remote repository.